Spokes of the Wheel Model?
Instructional design (ID), or instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of creating "instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing". The process consists broadly of determining the state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
Instructional designers are the 'architects' of the learning experience and the 'directors' of the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) process.
For Humane Societies, most employment positions have defined motor skill tasks and cognitive processes that can be categorizes using Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. By utilizing Bloom's Action Verbs, each cognitive category can be taught and assessed.
The selected Instructional Design Model for Humane Societies is the "Backward Design" Model.
The concept of Backward Design comes from Wiggins & McTighe and suggests that learning experiences should be planned with the final assessment in mind.
One starts with the end – the desired results (goals or standards) – and then derives the curriculum from the evidence of learning (performances) called for by the standard and the teaching needed to equip students to perform (Wiggins and McTighe, 2000, page 8).
By beginning with the end in mind, training designers are able to avoid the common problem of planning forward from unit to another, only to find that in the end some students are prepared for the final assessment and others are not.
There are three stages to backward design:
Stage 1: Identify Desired Results
Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence of Learning
Stage 3: Design Learning Experiences & Instruction
HPT is a systemic methodology used to facilitate performance improvement in organizations. HPT is specialized knowledge that is research supported and model driven.
The performance improvement process begins with a comparison of the present and the desired levels of individual and organizational performance to identify the performance gap. A cause analysis is then done to determine what impact the work environment (information, resources, and incentives) and the people (motives, individual capacity, and skills) are having on performance.
Once the performance gap and the causes have been determined, the appropriate interventions are designed and developed. These may include measurement and feedback systems, new tools and equipment, compensation and reward systems, selection and placement of employees, and training and development. The interventions are then implemented and the change process managed.
Evaluation is done after each phase of the process. Initially, formative evaluation assesses the performance analysis, cause analysis, intervention selection and design, and intervention and change phases. Then evaluation focuses on the immediate response of employees and their ability and willingness to do the desired behaviors. The final evaluations are centered on improvement of business outcomes (such as quality, productivity, sales, customer retention, profitability, and market share) as well as determining return on investment for the intervention.
The Certified Nonprofit Professional (CNP) credential is the only national nonprofit leadership development credential in the United States. New students or seasoned professionals can complete a leadership development program at one of many Nonprofit Leadership Alliance's affiliated colleges or universities that award the credential.
According to a LinkedIn study, Certified Nonprofit Professionals (CNPs) are seven times more likely than non-CNPs to reach a director-level or higher position at a nonprofit organization. CNPs also remain in the nonprofit sector 50 percent longer on average than non-CNPs, the study found.
“Research demonstrates that the Alliance’s competency-based approach provides a winning combination in terms of career advancement and commitment to the sector,” commented Susan Schmidt, President of the Nonprofit Leadership Alliance.
1) Minimum of a Bachelor's degree from an accredited institution.
2) 300 internship hours at a nonprofit.
3) National conference attendance.
4) Satisfactory completion of the curriculum.
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